What is amphetamine?
There is a lot of information about narcotics and all of it is contradictory. To imagine what an amphetamine threatens a person, one must know everything about the composition, harm and consequences of substance use.
What is amphetamine?
Amphetamine is not exactly a drug, in the classic sense of the word. It is a recreational psychoactive drug, a stimulant of the central nervous system.
The principle of the action of amphetamine is based on a powerful release in the body of neurotransmitters, namely, nor-adrenaline and dopamine. This is due to the mental addiction to the drug, the physical dependence of amphetamine does not cause.
In many countries, including Russia, this drug is used in the treatment of narcolepsy, various neurological disorders, including behavioral and developmental disorders. Amphetamine is most widely used in the correction of the notorious ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
By the way, in Russia amphetamine is also included in the list of illicit drugs in 2010. We are talking about the illegal production and trafficking of substances that can be both directly amphetamine and repeat the patented formula, as well as all derivatives, similar substances.
For the first time this diagnosis was voiced in the UK in 1970, a report in the medical community was called “ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder”. Since then, the scientific world has not ceased to debate whether the symptoms of ADHD are generally a developmental abnormality, pathology or disease and whether they need any correction, especially such a potent drug as amphetamine and its derivatives.
Strikingly anti-use of amphetamines and methamphetamines, oddly enough, have become American psychiatrists and neurologists right after the report in the British medical community.
In countries where amphetomine-containing drugs are used in medicine, their turnover is limited by legislation and is subject to the strictest accounting and control. Take and start using amphetamine just like that, getting it in a pharmacy – it’s impossible.
However, there is an extensive illicit trafficking of the remedy synthesized by skilled craftsmen and this variant of amphetamine usually contains some additional substances that change the influence of amphetamine and cause not only mental addiction but also physical dependence.
For the first time this substance was represented by German pharmacology in 1887, and in 1932 the drug was modified and adopted by the then medical institutions, under the name – phenamine. In the medical reference books for doctors and paramedics this tool was designated as a psychostimulant.
Since then, the composition of amphetamine has remained virtually unchanged, and its creation is a rather complex way of synthesizing and combining only three primary components – bases, so to speak. It:
German chemists worked under the inspiration of the works of ancient Chinese physicians who described the action and preparation of a drug now known as ephedrine.
When amphetamine is taken by a person as a drug, his loved ones can easily notice certain symptoms and start beating anxiety, without waiting for the sad consequences when dependence on amphetamine will develop.
If the following symptoms are present, then it’s time to start worrying:
A strong dilatation of the pupils, literally, as in the films about werewolves or vampires.
Hallucinations with preservation of orientation, that is, a person sees and hears that which is not, while perfectly orienting and understanding where he is – outwardly it resembles scenes from films in which ghosts are seen.
Changes in appetite – from intensive eating all in a row to a complete refusal of food during the day or more.
Uncontrollable sexual activity, as a rule, “ineffectual”.
Increased nervousness, gaiety, talkativeness, which are followed by apathy and irritation.
Insomnia, or rather, a person does not want to sleep and as such need for a dream.
Dry eyes, runny nose, red eye whites – appear already with prolonged regular use.
The earlier to start treatment for addiction, the better for the drug addict, because the less the period of use, the easier amphetamine withdrawal.
In principle, this applies to all drugs, but modern, completely chemical substances, especially. “Synthetics” is many times more destructive than any opium or heroin acts on the body, and the consequences of using amphetamine made by some “craftsman” and filled with unknown is much more terrible and irreversible than any vegetative psychotropic drugs.
Who is at risk?
It is considered that young people are in the risk zone:
Attending night clubs.
Already using narcotic substances.
Leading a dissolute way of life, with casual earnings.
Dysfunctional, alcohol abusers.
They are registered with the police in connection with some other teenage crime.
Children of chronic alcoholics or drug addicts.
However, in the case of synthetic substances, including amphetamine, this is not entirely true.
A chemical drug needs to be cooked somewhere. Moreover, the synthesis itself and a certain composition maximally acting on the brain require certain knowledge, conditions and even talent. Therefore, as a rule, the first people who try such a “product” are fellow students, classmates, neighbors and friends of home-grown “craftsmen” who are not even close to the notorious risk group.
Since any synthetic version of amphetamine is instantly addictive, people become addicts, and their loved ones do not notice anything for a long time, simply because they do not have this opportunity. Often, eyes close to people already discloses a condition such as amphetamine withdrawal or an overdose of amphetamine.
How does amphetamine work?
The danger of synthetic drugs is also that they stop using them voluntarily, especially at the beginning of “dating” almost no one wants. It is, of course, conditioned by the way the substance acts:
Immediately after the reception comes the state of a tide of energy, self-confidence, increased attention to everything, activity.
After a certain time, from 8 hours to 24 hours, there comes a slight panic condition and signs of fatigue, emotional decline and, as consequence, an indomitable desire to prolong the action of the drug.
With systematic administration of amphetamine, after 5-10 weeks the body no longer needs everything except the drug, moreover, without it, it does not function at all.
That is, the substance completely replaces everything, from food and water to films, books and simple communication. Therefore, drugs such as amphetamine need the earliest possible start of addiction treatment, as they quickly destroy a person, leaving little chance of recovery with a long period of use.
Amphetamine is excreted from the body naturally, that is, through the kidneys and liver. The half-life period ranges from seven hours to thirty. However, if amphetamine poisoning has occurred, then there can be no question of any natural conclusion.
Symptoms of an overdose of amphetamines:
The temperature jumps are sharp increases, followed by the same instantaneous fall.
Convulsions or monotonous senseless movements.
Persistent strong sweating, with concentration on the face.
Spontaneous urination, often in small volumes.
Violations in the heart rhythm.
Change of skin color – from beet reddening to blue pallor.
Respiratory spasms, possibly in combination with vomiting.
There is no such thing as a “lethal dose” when taking synthetic drugs, it depends on the components of the substance, the degree of deterioration of the body and on many other factors, the totality of which leads to the fact that death comes. Side effects are also absolutely individual. It is impossible to conduct any statistical analysis in this situation.
However, assistance with human poisoning with amphetamines and other artificial drugs implies the same actions:
At home, amphetamine can only be drunk and visited by the toilet.
Depending on how much amphetamine is excreted (visually visually) and from the general condition, you should take medications – Anaprilin, Obsidan, Inderal – to normalize blood pressure and heart rate.
When the possible excretion of amphetamine is finished, which will be reported by the color and smell of urine and the general condition of a person, it makes sense to take drugs that suppress the activity of the nervous system, that is, having the opposite effect of amphetamine – Diazepam, Librium or any other sleeping pills.
Such a sign as temperature changes can not be corrected by medicines.
But the most important action, if there was an overdose of amphetamine, is a call of a medical team.